4.9. Flow Keywords¶
Flowbits consists of two parts. The first part describes the action it is going to perform, the second part is the name of the flowbit.
There are multiple packets that belong to one flow. Suricata keeps those flows in memory. For more information see Flow Settings. Flowbits can make sure an alert will be generated when for example two different packets match. An alert will only be generated when both packets match. So, when the second packet matches, Suricata has to know if the first packet was a match too. Flowbits marks the flow if a packet matches so Suricata ‘knows’ it should generate an alert when the second packet matches as well.
Flowbits have different actions. These are:
- flowbits: set, name
- Will set the condition/’name’, if present, in the flow.
- flowbits: isset, name
- Can be used in the rule to make sure it generates an alert when the rule matches and the condition is set in the flow.
- flowbits: toggle, name
- Reverses the present setting. So for example if a condition is set, it will be unset and vice-versa.
- flowbits: unset, name
- Can be used to unset the condition in the flow.
- flowbits: isnotset, name
- Can be used in the rule to make sure it generates an alert when it matches and the condition is not set in the flow.
- flowbits: noalert
- No alert will be generated by this rule.
When you take a look at the first rule you will notice it would generate an alert if it would match, if it were not for the ‘flowbits: noalert’ at the end of that rule. The purpose of this rule is to check for a match on ‘userlogin’ and mark that in the flow. So, there is no need for generating an alert. The second rule has no effect without the first rule. If the first rule matches, the flowbits sets that specific condition to be present in the flow. Now with the second rule there can be checked whether or not the previous packet fulfills the first condition. If at that point the second rule matches, an alert will be generated.
It is possible to use flowbits several times in a rule and combine the different functions.
The flow keyword can be used to match on direction of the flow, so to/from client or to/from server. It can also match if the flow is established or not. The flow keyword can also be use to say the signature has to match on stream only (only_stream) or on packet only (no_stream).
So with the flow keyword you can match on:
- Match on packets from server to client.
- Match on packets from client to server.
- Match on packets from client to server (same as to_server).
- Match on packets from server to client (same as to_client).
- Match on established connections.
- Match on packets that are not part of an established connection.
- Match on packets that are and are not part of an established connection.
- Match on packets that have been reassembled by the stream engine.
- Match on packets that have not been reassembled by the stream engine. Will not match packets that have been reassembled.
- Match packets that have been reassembled from fragments.
- Match packets that have not been reassembled from fragments.
Multiple flow options can be combined, for example:
flow:to_client, established flow:to_server, established, only_stream flow:to_server, not_established, no_frag
The determination of established depends on the protocol:
For TCP a connection will be established after a three way handshake.
For other protocols (for example UDP), the connection will be considered established after seeing traffic from both sides of the connection.
Flowint allows storage and mathematical operations using variables. It operates much like flowbits but with the addition of mathematical capabilities and the fact that an integer can be stored and manipulated, not just a flag set. We can use this for a number of very useful things, such as counting occurrences, adding or subtracting occurrences, or doing thresholding within a stream in relation to multiple factors. This will be expanded to a global context very soon, so users can perform these operations between streams.
The syntax is as follows:
flowint: name, modifier[, value];
Define a var (not required), or check that one is set or not set.
flowint: name, < +,-,=,>,<,>=,<=,==, != >, value; flowint: name, (isset|isnotset);
Compare or alter a var. Add, subtract, compare greater than or less than, greater than or equal to, and less than or equal to are available. The item to compare with can be an integer or another variable.
For example, if you want to count how many times a username is seen in a particular stream and alert if it is over 5.
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"Counting Usernames"; content:"jonkman"; \ flowint: usernamecount, +, 1; noalert;)
This will count each occurrence and increment the var usernamecount and not generate an alert for each.
Now say we want to generate an alert if there are more than five hits in the stream.
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"More than Five Usernames!"; content:"jonkman"; \ flowint: usernamecount, +, 1; flowint:usernamecount, >, 5;)
So we’ll get an alert ONLY if usernamecount is over five.
So now let’s say we want to get an alert as above but NOT if there have been more occurrences of that username logging out. Assuming this particular protocol indicates a log out with “jonkman logout”, let’s try:
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"Username Logged out"; content:"logout jonkman"; \ flowint: usernamecount, -, 1; flowint:usernamecount, >, 5;)
So now we’ll get an alert ONLY if there are more than five active logins for this particular username.
This is a rather simplistic example, but I believe it shows the power of what such a simple function can do for rule writing. I see a lot of applications in things like login tracking, IRC state machines, malware tracking, and brute force login detection.
Let’s say we’re tracking a protocol that normally allows five login fails per connection, but we have vulnerability where an attacker can continue to login after that five attempts and we need to know about it.
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"Start a login count"; content:"login failed"; \ flowint:loginfail, notset; flowint:loginfail, =, 1; noalert;)
So we detect the initial fail if the variable is not yet set and set it to 1 if so. Our first hit.
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"Counting Logins"; content:"login failed"; \ flowint:loginfail, isset; flowint:loginfail, +, 1; noalert;)
We are now incrementing the counter if it’s set.
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"More than Five login fails in a Stream"; \ content:"login failed"; flowint:loginfail, isset; flowint:loginfail, >, 5;)
Now we’ll generate an alert if we cross five login fails in the same stream.
But let’s also say we also need alert if there are two successful logins and a failed login after that.
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"Counting Good Logins"; \ content:"login successful"; flowint:loginsuccess, +, 1; noalert;)
Here we’re counting good logins, so now we’ll count good logins relevant to fails:
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"Login fail after two successes"; \ content:"login failed"; flowint:loginsuccess, isset; \ flowint:loginsuccess, =, 2;)
Here are some other general examples:
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"Setting a flowint counter"; content:"GET"; \ flowint:myvar, notset; flowint:maxvar,notset; \ flowint:myvar,=,1; flowint: maxvar,=,6;)
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"Adding to flowint counter"; \ content:"Unauthorized"; flowint:myvar,isset; flowint: myvar,+,2;)
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"when flowint counter is 3 create new counter"; \ content:"Unauthorized"; flowint:myvar, isset; flowint:myvar,==,3; \ flowint:cntpackets,notset; flowint:cntpackets, =, 0;)
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"count the rest without generating alerts"; \ flowint:cntpackets,isset; flowint:cntpackets, +, 1; noalert;)
alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:"fire this when it reach 6"; \ flowint: cntpackets, isset; \ flowint: maxvar,isset; flowint: cntpackets, ==, maxvar;)
The stream size option matches on traffic according to the registered amount of bytes by the sequence numbers. There are several modifiers to this keyword:
> greater than < less than = equal != not equal >= greater than or equal <= less than or equal
stream_size:<server|client|both|either>, <modifier>, <number>;
Example of the stream-size keyword in a rule:
alert tcp any any -> any any (stream_size:both, >, 5000; sid:1;)