6.15. DNS Keywords

There are some more content modifiers (If you are unfamiliar with content modifiers, please visit the page Payload Keywords These ones make sure the signature checks a specific part of the network-traffic.

6.15.1. dns.opcode

This keyword matches on the opcode found in the DNS header flags. Syntax

dns.opcode:[!]<number> Examples

Match on DNS requests and responses with opcode 4:


Match on DNS requests whre the opcode is NOT 0:


6.15.2. dns.query

With dns.query the DNS request queries are inspected. The dns.query keyword works a bit different from the normal content modifiers. When used in a rule all contents following it are affected by it. Example:

alert dns any any -> any any (msg:”Test dns.query option”; dns.query; content:”google”; nocase; sid:1;)

The dns.query keyword affects all following contents, until pkt_data is used or it reaches the end of the rule.


dns.query is equivalent to the older dns_query. Normalized Buffer

Buffer contains literal domain name

  • <length> values (as seen in a raw DNS request) are literal ‘.’ characters
  • no leading <length> value
  • No terminating NULL (0x00) byte (use a negated relative isdataat to match the end)

Example DNS request for “mail.google.com” (for readability, hex values are encoded between pipes):

DNS query on the wire (snippet):


dns.query buffer: